Sunday, March 7, 2010

Apostasy and Restoration

I considered writing my own post on this subject, but I found this one by Elder Oaks so excellent, that I decided I couldn't write better.

Dallin H. Oaks, “Apostasy and Restoration,” Ensign, May 1995, 84

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has many beliefs in common with other Christian churches. But we have differences, and those differences explain why we send missionaries to other Christians, why we build temples in addition to churches, and why our beliefs bring us such happiness and strength to deal with the challenges of life and death. I wish to speak about some of the important additions our doctrines make to the Christian faith. My subject is apostasy and restoration.

Last year searchers discovered a Roman fort and city in the Sinai close to the Suez Canal. Though once a major city, its location had been covered by desert sands and its existence had been forgotten for hundreds of years (see “Remains of Roman Fortress Emerge from Sinai Desert,” Deseret News, 6 Oct. 1994, p. A20). Discoveries like this contradict the common assumption that knowledge increases with the passage of time. In fact, on some matters the general knowledge of mankind regresses as some important truths are distorted or ignored and eventually forgotten. For example, the American Indians were in many respects more successful at living in harmony with nature than our modern society. Similarly, modern artists and craftsmen have been unable to recapture some of the superior techniques and materials of the past, like the varnish on a Stradivarius violin.

We would be wiser if we could restore the knowledge of some important things that have been distorted, ignored, or forgotten. This also applies to religious knowledge. It explains the need for the gospel restoration we proclaim.

When Joseph Smith was asked to explain the major tenets of our faith, he wrote what we now call the Articles of Faith. The first article states, “We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in His Son, Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost.” The Prophet later declared that “the simple and first principles of the gospel” include knowing “for a certainty the character of God” (“Conference Minutes,” Times and Seasons, 15 Aug. 1844, p. 614). We must begin with the truth about God and our relationship to him. Everything else follows from that.

In common with the rest of Christianity, we believe in a Godhead of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. However, we testify that these three members of the Godhead are three separate and distinct beings. We also testify that God the Father is not just a spirit but is a glorified person with a tangible body, as is his resurrected Son, Jesus Christ.

When first communicated to mankind by prophets, the teachings we now have in the Bible were “plain and pure, and most precious and easy” to understand (1 Ne. 14:23). Even in the transmitted and translated version we have today, the Bible language confirms that God the Father and his resurrected Son, Jesus Christ, are tangible, separate beings. To cite only two of many such teachings, the Bible declares that man was created in the image of God, and it describes three separate members of the Godhead manifested at the baptism of Jesus (see Gen. 1:27; Matt. 3:13–17).

In contrast, many Christians reject the idea of a tangible, personal God and a Godhead of three separate beings. They believe that God is a spirit and that the Godhead is only one God. In our view, these concepts are evidence of the falling away we call the Great Apostasy.

We maintain that the concepts identified by such nonscriptural terms as “the incomprehensible mystery of God” and “the mystery of the Holy Trinity” are attributable to the ideas of Greek philosophy. These philosophical concepts transformed Christianity in the first few centuries following the deaths of the Apostles. For example, philosophers then maintained that physical matter was evil and that God was a spirit without feelings or passions. Persons of this persuasion, including learned men who became influential converts to Christianity, had a hard time accepting the simple teachings of early Christianity: an Only Begotten Son who said he was in the express image of his Father in Heaven and who taught his followers to be one as he and his Father were one, and a Messiah who died on a cross and later appeared to his followers as a resurrected being with flesh and bones.

The collision between the speculative world of Greek philosophy and the simple, literal faith and practice of the earliest Christians produced sharp contentions that threatened to widen political divisions in the fragmenting Roman empire. This led Emperor Constantine to convene the first churchwide council in a.d. 325. The action of this council of Nicaea remains the most important single event after the death of the Apostles in formulating the modern Christian concept of deity. The Nicene Creed erased the idea of the separate being of Father and Son by defining God the Son as being of “one substance with the Father.”

Other councils followed, and from their decisions and the writings of churchmen and philosophers there came a synthesis of Greek philosophy and Christian doctrine in which the orthodox Christians of that day lost the fulness of truth about the nature of God and the Godhead. The consequences persist in the various creeds of Christianity, which declare a Godhead of only one being and which describe that single being or God as “incomprehensible” and “without body, parts, or passions.” One of the distinguishing features of the doctrine of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is its rejection of all of these postbiblical creeds (see Stephen E. Robinson, Are Mormons Christians? Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1991; Encyclopedia of Mormonism, ed. Daniel H. Ludlow, 4 vols., New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1992, s.v. “Apostasy,” “doctrine,” “God the Father,” and “Godhead”).

In the process of what we call the Apostasy, the tangible, personal God described in the Old and New Testaments was replaced by the abstract, incomprehensible deity defined by compromise with the speculative principles of Greek philosophy. The received language of the Bible remained, but the so-called “hidden meanings” of scriptural words were now explained in the vocabulary of a philosophy alien to their origins. In the language of that philosophy, God the Father ceased to be a Father in any but an allegorical sense. He ceased to exist as a comprehensible and compassionate being. And the separate identity of his Only Begotten Son was swallowed up in a philosophical abstraction that attempted to define a common substance and an incomprehensible relationship.

These descriptions of a religious philosophy are surely undiplomatic, but I hasten to add that Latter-day Saints do not apply such criticism to the men and women who profess these beliefs. We believe that most religious leaders and followers are sincere believers who love God and understand and serve him to the best of their abilities. We are indebted to the men and women who kept the light of faith and learning alive through the centuries to the present day. We have only to contrast the lesser light that exists among peoples unfamiliar with the names of God and Jesus Christ to realize the great contribution made by Christian teachers through the ages. We honor them as servants of God.

Then came the First Vision. An unschooled boy, seeking knowledge from the ultimate source, saw two personages of indescribable brightness and glory and heard one of them say, while pointing to the other, “This is My Beloved Son. Hear Him!” (JS—H 1:17.) The divine teaching in that vision began the restoration of the fulness of the gospel of Jesus Christ. God the Son told the boy prophet that all the “creeds” of the churches of that day “were an abomination in his sight” (JS—H 1:19). We affirm that this divine declaration was a condemnation of the creeds, not of the faithful seekers who believed in them. Joseph Smith’s first vision showed that the prevailing concepts of the nature of God and the Godhead were untrue and could not lead their adherents to the destiny God desired for them.

After a subsequent outpouring of modern scripture and revelation, this modern prophet declared, “The Father has a body of flesh and bones as tangible as man’s; the Son also; but the Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones, but is a personage of Spirit” (D&C 130:22).

This belief does not mean that we claim sufficient spiritual maturity to comprehend God. Nor do we equate our imperfect mortal bodies to his immortal, glorified being. But we can comprehend the fundamentals he has revealed about himself and the other members of the Godhead. And that knowledge is essential to our understanding of the purpose of mortal life and of our eternal destiny as resurrected beings after mortal life.

In the theology of the restored church of Jesus Christ, the purpose of mortal life is to prepare us to realize our destiny as sons and daughters of God—to become like Him. Joseph Smith and Brigham Young both taught that “no man … can know himself unless he knows God, and he can not know God unless he knows himself” (in Journal of Discourses, 16:75; see also The Words of Joseph Smith, ed. Andrew F. Ehat and Lyndon W. Cook, Provo: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1980, p. 340). The Bible describes mortals as “the children of God” and as “heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ” (Rom. 8:16–17). It also declares that “we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together” (Rom. 8:17) and that “when he shall appear, we shall be like him” (1 Jn. 3:2). We take these Bible teachings literally. We believe that the purpose of mortal life is to acquire a physical body and, through the atonement of Jesus Christ and by obedience to the laws and ordinances of the gospel, to qualify for the glorified, resurrected celestial state that is called exaltation or eternal life.

Like other Christians, we believe in a heaven or paradise and a hell following mortal life, but to us that two-part division of the righteous and the wicked is merely temporary, while the spirits of the dead await their resurrections and final judgments. The destinations that follow the final judgments are much more diverse. Our restored knowledge of the separateness of the three members of the Godhead provides a key to help us understand the diversities of resurrected glory.

In their final judgment, the children of God will be assigned to a kingdom of glory for which their obedience has qualified them. In his letters to the Corinthians, the Apostle Paul described these places. He told of a vision in which he was “caught up to the third heaven” and “heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter” (2 Cor. 12:2, 4). Speaking of the resurrection of the dead, he described “celestial bodies,” “bodies terrestrial” (1 Cor. 15:40), and “bodies telestial” (JST, 1 Cor. 15:40), each pertaining to a different degree of glory. He likened these different glories to the sun, to the moon, and to different stars (see 1 Cor. 15:41).

We learn from modern revelation that these three different degrees of glory have a special relationship to the three different members of the Godhead.

The lowest degree is the telestial domain of those who “received not the gospel, neither the testimony of Jesus, neither the prophets” (D&C 76:101) and who have had to suffer for their wickedness. But even this degree has a glory that “surpasses all understanding” (D&C 76:89). Its occupants receive the Holy Spirit and the administering of angels, for even those who have been wicked will ultimately be “heirs of [this degree of] salvation” (D&C 76:88).

The next higher degree of glory, the terrestrial, “excels in all things the glory of the telestial, even in glory, and in power, and in might, and in dominion” (D&C 76:91). The terrestrial is the abode of those who were the “honorable men of the earth” (D&C 76:75). Its most distinguishing feature is that those who qualify for terrestrial glory “receive of the presence of the Son” (D&C 76:77). Concepts familiar to all Christians might liken this higher kingdom to heaven because it has the presence of the Son.

In contrast to traditional Christianity, we join with Paul in affirming the existence of a third or higher heaven. Modern revelation describes it as the celestial kingdom—the abode of those “whose bodies are celestial, whose glory is that of the sun, even the glory of God” (D&C 76:70). Those who qualify for this kingdom of glory “shall dwell in the presence of God and his Christ forever and ever” (D&C 76:62). Those who have met the highest requirements for this kingdom, including faithfulness to covenants made in a temple of God and marriage for eternity, will be exalted to the godlike state referred to as the “fulness” of the Father or eternal life (D&C 76:56, 94; see also D&C 131; D&C 132:19–20). (This destiny of eternal life or God’s life should be familiar to all who have studied the ancient Christian doctrine of and belief in deification or apotheosis.) For us, eternal life is not a mystical union with an incomprehensible spirit-god. Eternal life is family life with a loving Father in Heaven and with our progenitors and our posterity.

The theology of the restored gospel of Jesus Christ is comprehensive, universal, merciful, and true. Following the necessary experience of mortal life, all sons and daughters of God will ultimately be resurrected and go to a kingdom of glory. The righteous—regardless of current religious denomination or belief—will ultimately go to a kingdom of glory more wonderful than any of us can comprehend. Even the wicked, or almost all of them, will ultimately go to a marvelous—though lesser—kingdom of glory. All of that will occur because of God’s love for his children and because of the atonement and resurrection of Jesus Christ, “who glorifies the Father, and saves all the works of his hands” (D&C 76:43).

The purpose of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is to help all of the children of God understand their potential and achieve their highest destiny. This church exists to provide the sons and daughters of God with the means of entrance into and exaltation in the celestial kingdom. This is a family-centered church in doctrine and practices. Our understanding of the nature and purpose of God the Eternal Father explains our destiny and our relationship in his eternal family. Our theology begins with heavenly parents. Our highest aspiration is to be like them. Under the merciful plan of the Father, all of this is possible through the atonement of the Only Begotten of the Father, our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. As earthly parents we participate in the gospel plan by providing mortal bodies for the spirit children of God. The fulness of eternal salvation is a family matter.

It is the reality of these glorious possibilities that causes us to proclaim our message of restored Christianity to all people, even to good practicing Christians with other beliefs. This is why we build temples. This is the faith that gives us strength and joy to confront the challenges of mortal life. We offer these truths and opportunities to all people and testify to their truthfulness in the name of Jesus Christ, amen.


Looney said...

The first problem I have with that is that - having read a lot of Greek and Roman literature - it is clear that the Apostles themselves were the ones who brought classical philosophy into Christianity. For example, John begins with "In the beginning was the word (logos) ...", with logos being a philosophical term with centuries of meaning attached to it. Paul's writings have echoes of Stoic philosophy everywhere, especially in the commands for us to behave properly as Christians. Thus, if we are going to say that the apostasy is due to Greek philosophy, then we must either say that the apostles themselves were the apostates or the entire new testament is of no value due to corruptions.

From my perspective, there was a sort of apostasy which came later. Mainly it was the pastors reinventing a pagan-like priesthood with ceremonies, which the early church didn't have - together with the confusion of a bureaucracy with the church - an earthly institution was substituted for a heavenly one.

Delirious said...

I don't think Br. Oak's intent was that all philosophy is bad. We can learn a lot from the Greek and Roman philosophers. But the point he was trying to make is that when the Greeks and Romans interpreted Christianity to fit their philosophy, they lost some of the original doctrine. Their interpretation was only part of the apostasy. Ultimately, true apostasy occurs when we as individuals stray from the teachings of Jesus Christ. More important to the cause of the apostasy was that the Priesthood authority was lost when the apostles and prophets were killed. Without Priesthood leadership, and current revelation, the people were left to be blown about with every wind and doctrine. The Greeks and Romans only furthered that apostasy.
The councils, such as at Nicene, also influenced the apostasy by officially changing doctrine, such as doctrine about the nature of God. Even within those councils, there was great disagreement about what their creeds should be.

I'm wondering about your definition of the word "paganism". My main reason in asking is that the Greeks and Romans thought it was pagan to believe in a God with a physical body. This is one of our core beliefs. If having a body is not important for God, then why would it be so important for Jesus to resurrect His? This is one of the areas that we differ most from the Christian world, but it is probably due to the fact that most of the Christian world follows the creeds that were decided upon during the apostasy. This is one point of doctrine that we feel was lost due to the great apostasy. I do think there could be more than one apostasy, and there can be many individual apostasies, but the scriptures spoke of an apostasy, and also a restoration. We believe that great apostasy occurred, and that through Joseph Smith, that restoration of all things also occurred.

But I do agree with you, that it was the pastors, "reinventing a pagan-like priesthood", and taking the authority upon themselves, without being called of God that was one of the most key elements of the apostasy. In addition, I have mentioned before that we believe that another part of that "reinventing" was the practice to take money for service in the Priesthood. We believe that is what the ancients referred to as "priestcrafts". The early apostles went without purse or scrip, but today tele-evangilists get wealthy off the money they make. This was not what God intended the priesthood to be used for.
I just keep thinking about all of the churches in the world today. Why would God work in such a disorganized manner? Why wouldn't God set up His kingdom on earth, and lead it through current revelation? Why would He just let the Christian world muddle along teaching different doctrines? I believe that He did set up His kingdom when He was here on the Earth, but that it was lost to apostasy, and had to be restored in these latter days. That same organization stands today with living prophets and apostles, just as the church in ancient days.

Looney said...

By pagan, I had meant the notion of gods who can only be approached through the intermediary of a priest, with an emphasis on ceremony. The Bible emphasizes much of a relationship between God and Christians as a father to a child, whereas the notion of ceremony and priest seems to deny the father-child relationship in mind simple mind.

The specific issue with Greek philosophy seems to be in the trinity and the understanding of God's nature in the abstract. Certainly this is influenced by the philosophers. Still, it is John to Apostle who brings up Logos and this is really the core of the philosophical viewpoint, so I have a hard time accepting that the Christian teaching was corrupted by philosophy, yet trying to retain John's teachings.

I think I had mentioned this before - the notion that the church isn't a bureaucracy, but rather a community of people with a relationship with Jesus. The person of Christ was known by many in the time of the gospels, yet the nature of God was unknown. Satan generally directs attacks on bureaucracies seeking to gain control at the top. Thus, the appearance of disorder if one looks at this from an earthly perspective, yet God looks at things differently, seeing the hearts of those who truly love him.

As God said to Elijah "Yet I reserve seven thousand in Israel". The appearances were terrible, even to Elijah, yet the faithful were there and scattered about in a way that God saw clearly.

Delirious said...

I should say that when I talk about the many different Christian churches, and the confusion between them all, I do not doubt that there are many faithful believers. The faithful are found in all faiths, even those that differ greatly from our own. There are also many faithful pastors, who are doing the best they can, given their individual circumstances. God does see that they love Him. But is love enough? Is belief enough? We are taught not to just be hearers of the word, but doers also. In order to be "doers of the word", we must understand that word. With the differing of doctrine among the churches of today, where is a faithful follower to learn the doctrine? Would God just leave us here to fend for ourselves?

Delirious said...

The other thing I keep thinking Looney is that the Bible has gone through much to survive to what we know it to be today. We attribute every word in the book of John to John himself, but in reality, that book has gone through much to get to us today. Some time back I posted some links to some articles about this subject:

I just think we can't get hung up on a word here or a word there, when in actuality, the original writer may not have written it that way to begin with. One of our articles of faith states, "We believe the Bible to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly." We do believe the Bible to be God's word, and we cherish the Bible, but we also believe that as part of the apostasy, many "plain and precious" truths were lost during translation.